Item: There was a power surge.
Question: What would be affected in said power surge, and in what order?
Answer: Power supply, motherboard, graphics card, DVI cable, monitor.
Because the computer itself would power on successfully, and because I could still use the secondary monitor, I ruled out the first three in my list of five. Noting that the monitor was still able to display an error message, I ruled the final portion of the list out. This left the DVI cable as the culprit. Luckily, I work at a place where such a cable is an easy find. So, tonight I decided to replace the cable and be glad to have big pictures back. The only problem was, after replacing the cable, there was still no picture. So I began to panic. Is it the wrong cable? Did I plug it in to the wrong spot? No, it's the DVI cable, and it has to be in the right spot. I mean the monitor only has one DVI slot. It's not like I could put it into the s-video, composite, or even VGA slot!
Multiple inputs means I probably have to select which one I'm using...
Note to self: I am a dumbass.
And so, one input selection later, we're back in business.